According to the United Nations, the death toll updates on June, 2013 was a horrifying 100,000 deaths all together; with most of them being innocent Syrian women and children. Sherman’s and Sheridan’s destructive sweeps through the South occurred late in the conflict, when the North realized that it would have to wage “hard war” to win. The war in its initial years was fought between the Soviet Union and the Afghanistan resistance forces, known as the mujahideen. Very often it is the high cost of war that makes limited war more practical than total war. Civil War/Total War? In tandem with Lincoln’s anti-slavery moves, Congress passed two confiscation acts to deprive the enemy of property; the Confederate Congress passed similar legislation. Total war is a “war that is unrestricted in terms of the weapons used, the territory or combatants involved, or the objectives pursued, especially one in which the laws of war are disregarded.”, The contention of some historians that the Civil War was the first modern “total war,” setting the precedent for the murderous wars of the twentieth century, appears to be a new twist on the Myth of the Lost Cause. By attempting to hold the roads we will lose a thousand men monthly, and will gain no result. In 1866, Pollard contrasted the Yankees’ behavior with that of Lee’s army, which, he maintained, abided by its commander’s order to protect the property that lay in the path of its Gettysburg campaign. Scott Michael Rank, Ph.D., is the editor of History on the Net and host of the History Unplugged podcast. All rights reserved. The Napoleonic wars were an earlier example of the doctrine of “total war”. It was waged by Genghis Khan, Tamerlane, the Romans against the Carthaginians, Catholics and Protestants in Germany’s Thirty Years War, Germans in the First and Second World Wars, and the Russians and Japanese in World War II. [S]uch supplies within the reach of Confederate armies I regarded as much contraband as arms or ordnance stores. The accusation of brutality in the Union armies’ conquest of the South began right after the war. Currently, studying Bachelors in Hospitality. . Labeling Sherman’s property destruction “savage warfare,” Pollard continued, “If [a property owner] escaped, and was hiding in a thicket, this was prima facie evidence that he was a skulking rebel; and most likely some ruffian, in his zeal to get rid of such vipers, gave him a dose of lead, which cured him of his Secesh tendencies.” Not much there to support allegations of total war. The cause of the civil war lies in the … Sherman’s army continued its destructive progress through the Carolinas in early 1865. One of the first ever conflicts of the Cold War, fought for 3 years from 1946 to 1949 between the Greek government army backed by the United Kingdom and the United States against the Democracy Army of Greece (DSE) backed by Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and Albania; the war is often used to represent the first example of postwar British and American involvement in internal politics of a foreign county. In the early 1800s, the United States experienced a growth of nationalism and unity, but it was replaced by sectionalism, leading to the Civil War. He later said, “No military expedition was ever based on sounder or surer data.”. There is no mention of rape or murder. total war : strategy of defeating opponent by breaking their will with complete destruction, including towns, villages, transportation, and crops; used by the Union People Clara Barton : organized the America Red Cross; Civil War nurse and instrumental in helping identify deceased soldiers for proper burial The war caused significant hardships for the population, environment and mostly the economy of the country at that time. Being caught in the path of Sherman’s army was harrowing, but it was not total war. The Death toll for the Colombian Civil War is believed to be at least 200,000 people. His masterly Lincoln and His Generals begins with the assertion: “The Civil War was the first of the modern total wars…. His murder provoked the Bogotazo, simply meaning intense rioting that lasted ten hours and killed around 5,000 people. Promiscuous pillaging, however, was discouraged and punished.” This policy—hard war, not total war—was followed with few exceptions for the balance of the war. What did Sheridan’s troops do in the Shenandoah Valley in 1864–65? Two years later, Pollard harshly described Sheridan’s destruction of agriculture: “Of this and other like atrocities of the enemy, there has been attempted a very weak excuse, to the effect that if the private property of the inhabitants of the Confederacy had not been destroyed, it might have been converted to the uses of the belligerent Government, and have helped to sustain it. With over 21 years of on and off fighting, the war had a total of 500,000 deaths in addition to over a million casualties who were internally displaced. It was basically a follow up of the First Indochina War, fought between the North Vietnam, supported by – China and other communist allies against the government of South Vietnam supported by the United States and other anti-communist countries. “[I]t was not advised that houses should be burned, or robbed, jewelry stolen, and women raped in Pennsylvania, in exact imitation of the acts of Northern troops in Virginia and Mississippi,” but that “a devastation of the enemy’s country” should be inflicted “to teach the enemy a lesson.” Lee ignored such calls for vengeance, writes Pollard, who provided no evidence of or specifics about the alleged barbarity of the Union forces. This gave rise to the Taliban backed militarily by Pakistan’s army and enforced by several Al-Qaeda fighters from Arab countries. Although the war was fought solely in Vietnam, this period of American involvement in Vietnam is known as the American War. The reality is that the North won by “hard war,” not total war. The Mexican-American War provided many of the Civil War generals with strategic and tactical experience in active combat. The earliest modern example of total war was the American Civil War. His March to the Sea is described in the Oxford Encyclopedia of the Civil War: Sherman’s men were under orders to “forage liberally on the country during the march”—that is, to seize the food, fodder, and horses needed to sustain the army. [Dictionary 1] The United Nations does not wage war (or proxy war): its peacekeeping military actions are instead police actions. The death toll of the entire war period has been 250,000 individuals till date with over a million displaced. I can make the march and make Georgia howl. For example, the US Civil War caused an end to slavery in that country. Rajiv Ghandhi (former indian PM) helped to the LTTE Before their arrival. Site created in November 2000. . Prior to the Civil War, the Angolan War of Independence had taken place during 1961-1974. After this, however, I regarded it as humane to both sides to protect the persons of those found at their homes, but to consume everything that could be used to support or supply armies. So, here we have the collection of the Top 10 biggest Civil Wars of all times. Their destruction was accomplished without bloodshed and tended to the same result as the destruction of armies. Civil War total war—defined by the wanton killing of massive numbers of civilians—has a long and brutal history. Whatever the cause maybe, these wars have undoubtedly left deep scars on people’s minds and their perceptions about the world around them and how fast it can change. World War II ended the Holocaust. The war was a power struggle between two former liberation movement parties, the People’s Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). Self-appointed or especially ruthless foragers, known as “bummers,” were little more than ransacking thieves as they plundered the possessions of rich and poor, of slaves as well as their masters. The U.S. Civil War of 1861-1865. c. The Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939. d. The present Nigerian civil war, which may have some character as a war of extermination, as the preceding examples … Please follow this link to find out why we love what we do.... eList10 is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. . The barrage shot at the battle of Gettysburg under the charge of … The American Civil War ended more than 155 years ago, but the country really isn’t all that far removed from that part of its past. Some for the blinding thirst of power and then there are those who wanted to change the course of the generational ignorance in their societies into a revolutionary era free of all the ills and wrong doings. Sherman’s bummers destroyed property; Allied bombers in World War II destroyed hundreds of thousands of lives as well. The term ‘’Civil War ‘’originated from the Latin word bellum civile, used to refer to the several civil wars of the Roman Empire around the 1st Century BC. Literature and photographic images reflect, communicate, and influence human perspectives of historical events. In early 1864, his army lived off the countryside in his Meridian Campaign, a “dress rehearsal” for the March to the Sea. If you need proof of that beyond ongoing racial disparities and questions over the existence of monuments to Civil War leaders, you don’t have to look far. Perhaps the most common killings of innocents by military units were the executions of surrendering or surrendered black Union troops and their officers in many places, including Fort Pillow,9 Olustee (Florida), Milliken’s Bend, Saltville (Virginia), the Crater, and Poison Springs (Arkansas). Most significantly, [they] freed thousands and thousands of enslaved laborers along their path.” Sherman’s large army was able to live off the country between, Atlanta and Savannah because Sherman had studied an 1860 census report on the population, livestock, and agricultural production of each Georgia county he passed through. The Civil War simply does not belong in this category. In general, the most deadly conflicts have been fought on ideological grounds in revolutions and civil and religious wars. It’s a little hard to believe that all that we have longed for in the past and all that we’ve lost in the process of getting here; hasn’t really taught us anything or have we failed to learn? The Causes of the American Civil War Essay Example. Another war for ending a communist regime, fought in Afghanistan when the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) took power in the Saur revolution on April 27, 1978. . *Amazon and the Amazon logo are trademarks of Amazon.com, Inc., or its affiliates. There was no program to kill civilians, and, at most, only a few of them died. After successfully capturing Atlanta, Georgia, the Union Major General William T. Sherman marched his troops toward Savannah to the Atlantic Ocean. A war that killed over a 100,000 people during its course fought on the small island of Sri Lanka between the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, better known as the Tamil Tigers; a separatist militant organization against the Sri Lankan Military that defeated the Tigers in May 2009 bringing an end to the war. The term “civil war” comes from the Latin phrase bellum civile, which translates to “war of or pertaining to civilians,” and was first used to describe the Roman civil wars of the 1st century BCE. They burned barns, silos, crops, and some houses; they stripped the valley of livestock and foodstuffs that had been used to support Confederate troops throughout the war. The American Civil War was an unfortunate war that cost more than the lives of six hundred thousand people. Wars can also lead to technological advances that help society. Lincoln rejected appeals for emancipation for more than a year into the war. There were many events that led to the cause of one of America’s most devastating war, the American Civil War. If Sherman’s bummers, on their March to the Sea, had executed large numbers of civilians, they could be accused of total warfare. The term "hard war" was popularized by the historian Mark Grimsley in The Hard Hand of War: Union Military Policy Toward Southern Civilians, 1861–1865 (1995); it was not a term popular during the Civil War. The worst was the execution of about 150 men and boys in Lawrence, Kansas, in 1863 by William Quantrill’s pro-Confederate Raiders. Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War or the Vietnam Conflict went on for more than two long decades. . Everything about the Syrian Civil War is haywire, with clashes taking all over the place with no primary fronts and a figurative war between the Syrian Army against the peaceful demonstrators turned armed oppositions of a psychologically disturbed Syria. The American Civil War brought that into focus.”. . The methods, not the “strategic purpose,” make a conflict a “ total war.” Unlimited, large-scale attacks on civilians—like those on London, Coventry, Dresden, Berlin, Tokyo, Hiroshima, Nagasaki, and countless other cities in World War II—are absent from the Civil War. When the need for more Union soldiers and the need to deplete the labor force of the South outweighed the Border State concerns, the president issued his Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation in September 1862 and his final proclamation on January 1, 1863. The definition of a civil war is a war between citizens of the same country. The Extent of Battle from 1861 to 1865, California – Do not sell my personal information. . The Civil War was a “mighty scourge,” as Lincoln called it, but despite the best efforts of the Myth-makers, it was not America’s introduction to “total war.” The mass killings of civilians that did take place were the work of Confederate sympathizers. 1862. A recent study by Lisa Frank of the relationship between his soldiers and Southern women excoriates the soldiers for entering bedrooms and parlors, as well as seizing personal treasures and letters, in an effort to humiliate and demoralize elite white women along their route. The irony is we believe that we are the most supreme beings in the world, created by and in the likeness of God himself; and still we’re fighting each other for power in these never-ending bloodbaths known as Civil War. . The evidence deserves more detailed examination. In 1979, the start of the Salvadoran Civil war the reformist group, Revolutionary Government Junta took power, this caused the extreme left and the extreme right to disagree with the government and the rapid rate of political violence soon turned into a raging civil war. As they stormed through Georgia later that year, “sixty thousand Union troops destroyed railroads, torched cotton bales, emptied corncribs and smokehouses, and seized hogs, horses, and mules. Civil War Total War 1864-1865 General William Tecumseh Sherman "Until we can repopulate Georgia, it is useless to occupy it: but the utter destruction of its roads, houses and people will cripple their military resources. Total War: conflict of unlimited scope in which a belligerent engages in a mobilization of all available resources at their disposable whether human, industrial, agricultural, military, natural, technological or otherwise, in order to entirely destroy of render beyond use their rivals capacity to continue resistance The practice of total war has been in use for… Civil War is something that has been going on from the ancient medieval times and is still in fashion for some of the world’s nastiest and notorious groups. The American Civil War of 1861-1865 was fought between the Union (the northern states) and The Confederates (the southern states) under the presidency of Abraham Lincoln. . One of the first ever conflicts of the Cold War, fought for 3 years from 1946 to 1949 between the Greek government army backed by the United Kingdom and the United States against the Democracy Army of Greece (DSE) backed by Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and Albania; the war is often used to represent the first example of postwar British and American involvement in internal politics of a foreign county. eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'elist10_com-large-leaderboard-2','ezslot_2',112,'0','0']));A rather low intensity but perhaps one of the longest conflicts in the history of civil wars, the Colombian Conflict began in the year 1964 between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), and the National Liberation Army (ELN). This chapter examines the election of 1860, the secession crisis, the relative strengths and weaknesses of the Union and the Confederacy, the military history of the war, as well as the economic and social changes the war produced. The actual reason for fighting however varies from group to group. In a normal war… Civil War Essay The Civil War was the most divisive war in American history. ” In fact, however, the rebels in Pennsylvania foraged extensively and confiscated livestock, transportation vehicles, and thousands of wagon loads of grains and produce—sufficient to constitute a fifteen-, twenty- or fifty-mile reserve train of wagons. Union military leaders who served as junior officers in the Mexican-American War include: Ulysses S. Grant, George B. McClellan, William T. Sherman, and Ambrose Burnside. Did the North win by waging total war in the Civil War? Confederate “payments” for property were made in essentially worthless Confederate currency, and as many as several hundred blacks were kidnapped and sent South into slavery. Total war is war in which a country mobilizes all of their people and resources. . But the intentions of eliminating enemy resources and breaking the will of its people, logical goals of virtually any war, do not make a war “total.”, Most of the killings of civilians during the Civil War occurred in Missouri, Kansas, the Appalachian sections of many Confederate states, and Texas. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'elist10_com-medrectangle-3','ezslot_3',102,'0','0']));A ‘’Civil War’’ can be defined as a violent clash inside the boundary of a particular country fought and initiated by organized groups that aim nothing but to take power at their desired regions of the country or in order to change the existing government policies. The list is compiled from only those Civil Wars that have occurred after the Second World War. It implies that the Union prevailed by waging war of unethical scope and severity. . 1. Total war, military conflict in which the contenders are willing to make any sacrifice in lives and other resources to obtain a complete victory, as distinguished from limited war. His men particularly hated South Carolina, the birthplace of secession, and they probably destroyed more property there than anywhere else. . In addition to the advent of the telegraph, the Spenser rifle, iron clads, and to the increased use of the Not long afterward, in 1864, Bloody Bill Anderson executed twenty-four unarmed Union soldiers pulled from a train, and he slaughtered 127 men in a pursuing militia posse, including the captured and wounded.8. One of the most notorious massacres of the war was the El Mozote massacre in December of the year 1981. It is important to note that when the phrase “total war” is applied to the U.S. Civil War it has a very different meaning than when it is used to describe 20th-century conflicts. A limited war is a war carried out by a state that uses less than its total resources and has a goal of less than total defeat of the enemy. Civil War total war—defined by the wanton killing of massive numbers of civilians—has a long and brutal history. Total war is warfare that includes any and all civilian-associated resources and infrastructure as legitimate military targets, mobilizes all of the resources of society to fight the war, and gives priority to warfare over non-combatant needs.. ”, Other prominent Civil War historians followed Williams down that path.6 For example, in 1996 James M. McPherson commented that “by 1864 a group of generals including Grant, Sherman, and Sheridan had emerged to top commands in the North with a firm grasp on the need for coordinated offensives in all theaters, a concept of the Civil War total war strategy necessary to win this conflict, the skill to carry out the strategy, and the relentless, even ruthless determination to keep pressing it despite a high cost of casualties until the South surrendered unconditionally.”, McPherson explains, “The kind of conflict the Civil War had become merits the label of Civil War total war. a. Civil wars result in high number of casualties and are often packed with high-intensity conflict involving regular and armed forces. In a limited war a state's total survival does not depend on the outcome of the war. He adds that “the totality of the modern state seems to require unconditional surrender as a necessary correlative of its total wars. 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